There were several devices that fly starting from Boomerang to kites. Man designed flight by using Bird as model. George Clayey and Otto Lilienthal made scientific study of flights in 19th century. Wright brothers who designed gliding flights and first human controlled flights later followed their work.
Spaceflight was first started in the 20th Century by breakthroughs of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and Robert H. Goddard. The first spaceflight was launched in 1957 and Yuri Gagarin was carried aboard on the first orbital spaceflight in 1961 with man on board.
There are various approaches to flight. If the density of an object is lower than air is buoyant. The object will be able to float in the air without the use of energy. An aerodyne includes flighted animals and insects or fixed-wing aircraft. Since the craft weight is heavier than air, lift must be generated to overcome its weight. Drag is the wind resistance caused by the craft moving through the air it is overcome by propulsive thrust which is not caused during gliding.
For an aircraft or object to fly the following forces are involved in case of the aircraft which is heavier than Air. Forces relevant to air are:
- Drag it is created by aerodynamic friction
- Weight it is created by gravity
- Propulsive thrust
- Buoyancy for flight lighter than air
The following forces explained must be balanced for stable flight.
Lift is mainly related with the wing of an aircraft though lift may also be generated by rotors on rotorcraft. Commonly the word lift opposes gravity. Aerodynamic lift could be in any direction. When an aircraft is in flight lift opposes gravity, but occurs while climbing or descending.
Drag is a force that opposes the motion of the object. In a powered vehicle it is overcome by thrust. For an object moving through a fluid medium, the net hydrodynamic or aerodynamic force acting in opposite direction of the movement is called drag. The component that is perpendicular to this direction is considered lift.
The pressure of Air opposing the Object in air is more than the pressure above it. The buoyancy is equal in both air and fluid medium. Archimedes principle is applied for both Air and Water. Any object, which is lesser in weight than the weight of air, which is of equal volume, will float in air shortly any object with density lesser than air will float.
Lift is a force created by the movement of an object through air, thus deflecting the air which acts as the source of lift. For a flight to be sustained, lift must be equal to its weight.
Flight dynamics is the science orientation and control in three dimensions for air and space vehicles. The three important flight dynamics parameters are pitch, roll and yaw.
Once Air travelling was considered as a wonder and was meant only for rich people. Nowadays the custom has changed. Almost all range of people have started to use air travelling due to the quickness of service and lesser travel time in case of travelling to different nations or travelling long distance.
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